The Smart Grid As a Public Health Protection Tool
1 The SDWA was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nationâ€™s public drinking water supply. The law was amended in 1986 and 1996.
2 EPA recently published Contaminant Candidate List 3, including 12 microbial contaminants and 106 chemical contaminants.
3 Global Waterâ€“Santa Cruz Water Company, a utility serving approximately 45,000 people (17,000 connections) in Arizona, has 1.2 million feet of transmission and distribution main with a total volume of 5 million gallons.
4 Craun, M. F., et al. 2006. â€œWaterborne outbreaks reported in the United Statesâ€. Journal of Water and Health. 04(Suppl. 2), 19â€“30.
6 USEPA. 2007. Addressing the Challenge Through Innovation. Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
8 Hunter, P. R. et al. 2005. â€œSelf-Reported Diarrhea in a Control Group: A Strong Association with Reporting of Low-Pressure Events in Tap Waterâ€. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40(4):e32â€“e34
9 Karim, M. R., M. Abbaszadegan, M. LeChevallier. 2003. â€œPotential for pathogen intrusion during pressure transientsâ€. AWWA Journal 95(5):134â€“46.
10 Backflow conditions can occur when low pressure due to high flow (e.g., during firefighting operations or main flushing exercises) or main breaks cause water to return to the distribution system from consumer-owned piping.
11 GAO Report GAO-02-764 â€œWATER INFRASTRUCTURE: Information on Financing, Capital Planning, and Privatizationâ€, August 2002.
13 Molina, Miguel, Agua Ambiente. â€œFull-scale application of network monitoring tools for leakage reduction and asset rehabilitation prioritizationâ€. Presentation to Smart Water Networks Forum, Paris, May 18, 2011.
14 US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). TG 284-Drinking Water Consumer Complaints: Indicators from Distribution System Sentinels. May 2003.
15 The assessment of water-quality complaints is an activity requiring specialized knowledge and skill. However, most routinely, the first contact a consumer has regarding a complaint is the customer service department. Often, CSRs are not located in the same location as the customer or the operations staff, and they typically lack the technical skill to assess the condition.
17 Op. cit. USACHPPM.